Apr 21 2016

Teaching It to our Children

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children-sederLast week, we spoke about the recurring themes of Passover in every generation: freedom from slavery under G-d, those who would hate us, and Divine Protection.

There is another aspect to the concept of “In Every Generation,” also found in abundance in the Haggadah: The importance of passing the message on to the next generation — to our children, and to anyone who has not yet had the opportunity to know.

As we proceed through the Haggadah, we see many different customs designed specifically to cause children and others to ask questions, to wonder why we are doing things differently than usual.

The Four Questions are considered a mandatory part of the Seder; one making the Seder alone would even recite the questions to him or herself, before answering them with the Haggadah. The theme of the Four Questions is, of course, “why is this night different than all other nights?” And those four questions are by no means an exhaustive list of the differences. Here are several more:

It is routine to wash our hands before eating a meal, but we don’t all go to wash, return to the table and merely have a small amount of a vegetable.

Before asking the Four Questions, the Seder plate is removed. This is done to inspire children to ask why the platter is being removed before anyone has eaten.

We describe four sons and the questions they would ask, making every participant think about the questions that they might ask.

We uncover and cover the matzoh, and lift our cups of wine, to call our attention at special moments. We take out some of the wine from our cups, either with fingers or by pouring, when mentioning each of the Plagues.

We point to the Matzah when we talk about it, and then to the Maror.

Anyone who has shared a Seder with children knows that they genuinely respond to all of these things, and teachers recognize that the Seder collects a range of proven pedagogical techniques to help convey information.

The Haggadah was designed because this information is so crucial, because it cuts to the essence of what makes the Jewish people distinct, of our mission in the world.

Recently, I came across a collection of “modern Seder resources,” referring to various other stories of slavery, racism and discrimination, and the need to fight these in all their forms. That last point is true, of course, but one who thinks that these things are needed to make the Seder “relevant” hasn’t gotten the message. The Seder, in all its aspects, is as relevant today as it was in any other generation. The Talmud says “all who add, subtract,” because often an addition distracts our attention from the main point and objective.

In one evening, we learn about the formation of our unique nation, our Divine Service, and even about the nature of those who would rather the transmission of G-d’s voice into the world be stopped.

We have so much to learn, and so much to transmit. May we merit this Passover to experience robust spiritual growth for ourselves and our children, as we celebrate the Seder.

Apr 15 2016

In Every Generation

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Freedom-from-the-Egyptian-EmpireThe development of the new Torah.org enables us to provide a range of new content, especially introductory material. The Sabbath prior to Pesach is called Shabbos HaGadol, the Great Sabbath, because the Jews were shown that their redemption had begun — they were commanded to take a lamb, an idol of the Egyptians, in order to slaughter it, and knew they would not be harmed.

So, for this Sabbath, prior to the holiday, I would like to share with you our new page on the history of Passover.

The holiday of Passover celebrates the Exodus from Egypt – when the descendents of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob were liberated from slavery, and became a new and unique nation under God.

Like those who have expressed antipathy towards Jews for millennia, the Egyptian Pharoah had no reason to hate them. On the contrary, Jacob’s son Joseph saved the country from famine, and was even able to sell surplus grain to those in surrounding countries. This explains how and why Jacob and his entire family came from the Land of Israel, then called Cana’an, to Egypt (see Genesis Ch. 41-48). The Jews settled independently in a region called Goshen, but were loyal subjects of the realm.

Years later, a new Pharoah was crowned, one who claimed to be unaware of the Jews’ pivotal contribution to Egypt’s survival and enhanced international reputation. He insisted that something must be done about the Jews, for they had too much power. Otherwise, he said, the Jews could unite with a foreign power in an act of treason, joining those who came to wage war and (commentators differ on this point) either plundering Egypt’s wealth and carrying it off to Cana’an, or even expelling the Egyptians and taking the real estate for themselves.

To be certain, all of Pharaoh’s accusations were baseless lies – until his own blind hatred made them reality. He not only enslaved the Jews, he made their lives impossible, and tried to kill them out by drowning all newborn Jewish boys. The oppressed Jews cried out to God, Who punished the Egyptians with a series of plagues that killed their crops, their livestock, and even their firstborn sons. Oral tradition teaches that the Egyptians willingly handed over their wealth to the Jews, so that they would leave and stop the plagues.

In the end, another bout of irrational hatred consumed Pharaoh. He ran to wage war against the departing Jews and drag them back – and he and his entire army were drowned.

The Passover Haggadah declares this to be a recurring pattern: “For not merely one rose upon us to destroy us. Rather, in every generation they rise over us to destroy us, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, saves us from their hands.” The ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks and Romans, the Crusaders and the Inquisitors, the Cossacks and the Nazis – their empires are gone, their cultures in disrepute.

As for they Jews – fifty days after leaving Egypt, they were camped at the foot of Mount Sinai, where they experienced a Divine Revelation and accepted upon themselves a unique mission and code of conduct. This is what has preserved the Jewish people through the ages.

On Passover, we celebrate the birth of the eternal nation!

Apr 07 2016

A Time of New Beginnings

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newTorahOrgOur Torah reading begins this week with laws regarding purity after giving birth, after a woman brings a new life into the world. We will also celebrate Rosh Chodesh, the beginning of a new Jewish month. The word for month itself, Chodesh, shares the root of Chadash, new. Each month is a new beginning, an opportunity for renewal. And this month in particular, Nissan, is the first of months for Jewish holidays. It is the month in which we celebrate Passover, the time of our birth as a nation.

Passover is also an opportunity for individual renewal. Again there is an interesting parallel in Hebrew terms: the word for Egypt, Mitzrayim, is a cognate of Meytzarim, confines or boundaries. Our Sages say that Passover gives us an opportunity to leave our personal meytzarim, to break out of spiritual boundaries, to ascend to heights we did not previously believe we could reach.

For Project Genesis, there is an additional reason why this is a moment of renewal and rebirth, as we celebrate the launch of the new Torah.org. Please do visit our new website, as it is truly renewed. We are still in the middle of the daunting task of importing tens of thousands of files, but we have a wonderful guide to Passover and other changes that we considered important enough to launch now.

As with the new month, with a new birth, with every Passover — this is only the beginning. Great things are yet to come!

Mar 31 2016

Follow the Leader

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In this week’s reading, we learn of the deaths of the two eldest sons of Aharon HaKohen, the High Priest. “And Nadav and Avihu, the sons of Aharon, each took his censer, and put fire in them, and put incense on each, and brought before G-d a strange fire, which He had not Commanded them. And a fire went out from before G-d and consumed them, and they died before G-d.” [Lev. 10:1-2]

The commentaries help us to understand what it was that they did wrong. Why was a fire-offering inappropriate, and why did it warrant such a dramatic response?

One explanation offered by the Medrash is that they did not consult with their father or their uncle Moshe prior to making this offering. The Medrash even says that they were looking forward to the time that Moshe and Aharon would leave this world, imagining that they would then become the leaders.

Now both Nadav and Avihu were loyal sons, and they were both on an incredibly high spiritual level. How can the Medrash say that they were looking forward to the time when their father had passed away?

It could well be that the Medrash is telling us their subconscious motivation, which they might have not expressed or even recognized within themselves. Great as they were, the Medrash implies that they did not recognize the need to seek guidance before acting. They were not, as yet, in charge. And they had to consult with the leaders of the people, those who could tell them what was beneficial or appropriate.

Precisely because they were on a high spiritual level and dealing with the highest levels of holiness, the greatest level of sensitivity was required. This is why the consequences were great.

Our Sages tell us that a person must “make” a Rav for himself [Chapters of the Fathers 1:6], to find a Rabbi and teacher who can provide advice. This is the Jewish path, a tradition given from teacher to student throughout the generations.

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